User:Hthrxlynn/NMAC 4460 Journal

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August 18: New Media

Based on my current knowledge, I would define "new media" by saying that it is the forms of media that have been created with the addition of advanced television broadcasting and the internet. I already know that media is the way we communicate to a large number of people. Putting "new" before it implies that there is an "old" version, which I would say is newspaper, magazines, and local television stations. Now, we not only are able to show a news station across the entirety of the US, but we can share photos, videos, and text almost instantly online, where we are connected with the rest of the world.

With the internet, we can choose which forms we wish to communicate through: news websites and blogs, videos on YouTube, or social media accounts such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Many people communicate through more than one of these, reaching an even broader audience. I think that defines another characteristic of new media: it's easily accessible. If you want to know what is happening in the world, find inspiration for a project you're working on, or even just look up how to do something, it's right there on the internet. You can even decide to join in and share your own content. This website is a great example of a collaborative effort with users from all over the world.

August 18: New Media, After Research

After conducting research on the topic, I know that I was on the right track with my first entry. I was correct in my idea that because there is a new, there has to be an old. I forgot to mention radio, which I later found in my search of the definition of new media.

An interesting idea I came across is the argument of what qualifies as new media. The line between what is and is not new media can be blurry; for example, some would say a photograph presented digitally is new media, but the same photograph in print is not.[1] I agree with Manovich's argument that this definition is too limiting. With the way that these devices change our lives, I would argue that a photograph taken with an iPhone and printed into a book would still be new media. The subject itself, the idea that a portable device that functions as more than just a camera took the photo, and the methods of getting the photo into the book are all examples of the way that things have changed and that we have changed along with them.

Finally, the main thing I missed in my previous journal entry is that the focus of new media is on the devices themselves.[2] I think I beat around this idea, I just didn't explain the significance of the devices. The idea that we carry around a small box that can communicate with people on the other side of the world, take photographs, do math, edit and share photos and videos, and even unlock doors and give our dogs treats when we aren't home is mind boggling. The world has changed so much with the invention of the phone. There are jobs built around apps (like Uber) and we have full-length films at our fingertips with streaming services like Netflix. These are the kinds of things new media is all about.

@Hthrxlynn: I like how you mentioned Manovich's argument that the term new media is limiting. I find the term so broad because it can be referring to the digital devices, the study of how we use it, and even more. While I see the term is broad, I think it is correct that it is quite limiting too. Since we label things as "new media" or "traditional media", we forget that many of these things are combined. As you said, the lines are blurred when it comes to things like photos in certain forms. I think that instead of trying to seperate new media from the old, we should focus on the changes that were made between them. I think that would help in the further evolution of media. I guess at that point it would be newer media? Sabub (talk)
@Sabub: I agree with your idea of focusing on changes, or improvements, in new media. Instead of "newer media" we might want to call it "collaborative media" if we adopt the idea of evolving new media!
@Hthrxlynn: I would have to agree with both you and Sabub. To try and pinpoint an exact definition of "new media" would be subjective by nature, as everyone has their own ideas of what is considered "art," which is how I personally like to think about new media: it is an artistic form of expression that has been created or enhanced someway through digital means. As you pointed out, should a photograph be considered new media after being printed? I would say it should, as it had to first be taken, modified or enhanced in some way, and then developed into a photograph. Not to mention many people use photographs to display something beyond the photograph itself, essentially making them a "device" in their own right. In trying to decide what to conduct my R1 project on, I finally settled on a book covering video games within the realm of new media, and during my research of a topic I found many articles debating whether or not video games should be considered new media or not. In my opinion, they are (and I hope in Dr. Lucas's opinion too, because I already bought the book!) Anyway, you hit the nail on the head with this one. The definition of new media is very broad, so as long as the individual can support their claim with justifiable evidence, I believe new media can be found within nearly every aspect of our lives, which is why it is so important and powerful in today's society. Shannamartini (talk) 22:48, 7 September 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: It's a weird concept for sure, Shannon! It's like studying philosophy but more tangible.
@Hthrxlynn: Great post Heather, You touched on a few things that I missed. In your last statement about our devices that basically let us RULE THE WORLD is great. We have so much power with our as you called it “ box “ is a great way to explain new media as well. The evolution of media from older to now is just so mind boggling I’m so glad you touched on the power of media through JUST our phones. The crazy thing is it’s not going to let up anytime soon, there are going to be so many more things that evolve and I can’t wait to see what these creators come up with next. VincentH81 (talk) 13:31, 8 September 2019 (EDT)
@VincentH81: Hey, Vincent! You're right that we basically rule the world with our phones! In my original definition of new media, I failed to discuss the devices themselves but they're so important in new media, especially smart phones!
@Hthrxlynn: This was a really good aspect of the power of media throughout technology. It is so crazy how new media consumes our everyday lives and the force it has behind it to make it so important. Over the years new media has definitely become our way of wanting more of it because it has been updated and will continue to be updated. New, Old, and Traditional media have all come along way with differentiating and it's great that as individuals we get to see this happening. Jameiladudley (talk) 19:01, 8 September 2019 (EDT)Jameiladudley
@Jameiladudley: It makes you wonder what's next! Savannah and I talked about "collaborative media" earlier!

September 3: The Memex

It amazes me that I've had to learn about this hypothetical device more than once in my academic career. In July, 1945, an engineer, inventor, and science administrator by the name Vannevar Bush presented the concept of the "memex" in his article, "As We May Think." The memex would be used to store information that could be linked together in a similar way to what Wikipedia does today. Essentially, it was a database of books and information that the user could connect to other related books (or pages of books). The user had the ability to annotate the books and share their connected collections to other memex owners. Bush described it as a "mechanized private file and library."[3]

Our friend, J. C. R. Licklider saw beyond what Bush presented with his memex. Licklider saw a network of possibilities for communication across the globe, pretty much exactly as it is today. He described a system of "man-computer symbiosis" which describes a development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.[4] It's crazy that just a few years later, we would carry access to the World Wide Web in our pockets.

September 5: McLuhan

Marshall McLuhan was a philosopher and teacher from Canada. He is perhaps best known for his book, The Medium is the Massage which he co-authored with Jerome Agel. Interestingly, the video I watched said that the title of the book was originally "The Medium is the Message" and that the title was a typesetting error that McLuhan decided to keep, but the article says "McLuhan adopted the term "massage" to denote the effect of each medium on the human sensorium, taking inventory of the "effects" of numerous media in terms of how they "massage" the sensorium.[5] Neither one states a clear source for where the information came from.

It's impressive to me that McLuhan existed before our time and seems to describe exactly what life is like today. Lucas brings up a good point in his article, McLuhan's Medium & Message: McLuhan never makes a clear distinction between media and technology.[2] In his future, the two would be hand-in-hand. I'm literally typing words on an electronic device that is connected to a network that reaches all over the world.

@Hthrxlynn: It is interesting how McLuhan knew the turn that media was going to take before it even took place forming all types of new media. I was confused at first but I also think the TED talk "How Architecture Helped Music Evolve" helped give an example of "the medium is the message" and how things evolve and change over time or just to simply adapt to it. KhajadaNeal (talk) 11:07, 8 September 2019 (EDT)
@KhajadaNeal: Right! It's impressive to me that there was a man that was able to see where these primitive devices were heading (and he was right about it, too)!
It really amazes me how some people can make claims before it actually happens. I agree with you Heather about your statements about how in Dr. Lucas's article, and how McLuhan talks about how media and technology have no difference. They are the same because we use technology such as cell phones or iPads to get on social media. We can literally use any technical device to look on all social media websites. After McLuhan made his claims, he was right all along.Vada.amerson (talk) Vada.amerson 21:58, 8 September 2019 (EDT)
@Vada.amerson: I didn't even think about how a lot of the devices created share functions! You're absolutely right!

September 12: Negroponte

Nicholas Negroponte is a Greek American architect who authored the book Being Digital. This book was about digital technology in the past, making great claims about where the future was headed. It was really cool to watch the Ted Talk given by Negroponte himself and hear him talk about things that exist now.[6] Negroponte's book touched on the idea of "atoms to bits," which was essentially his way of saying that everything will be digital one day. When the book was published in 1995, the World Wide Web had only been in existence for around 6 years.[7] It's cool that Negroponte saw where the world was headed. He states in his book that "the change from atoms to bits is irrevocable and unstoppable."[8] I think in the world that I grew up in, it's impossible to genuinely disagree with Negroponte's prediction. The entire world is spread across this table that I am sitting at while I type. I am on a laptop with an iPad open beside me so I could accurately quote Negroponte's book and my phone is off to the side so I don't get distracted by that very fact.

Marshal Ruffin brings up a good point about the logical benefit of moving from atoms to bits: we are paying for the production and distribution of content that is of little or no interest to us when we pay for magazine subscriptions or something along those lines.[9] This is one of the many reasons why we are shifting to the digital world. Convenience, saving money, and getting the information we are looking for faster are a few more logical reasons why everything is moving to computers.

I think the medium is definitely still the message in the digital world. There are still specific standards that newspapers are held to, although they are posting their information online just like everyone else. I think in this case, the medium refers to the type of website or platform that the information is displayed on. I don't expect to read tweets in the Kindle app, just like I don't expect people to be formal on Facebook like I expect on LinkedIn. There are definitely spaces for the type of messages you are trying to present, even in the digital world. I wouldn't text a potential employer, but I might shoot them an email. There are still formalities associated with that.

September 14: The Hacker

The Hacker's Manifesto reminded me of this kid in my math class in high school.[10] He didn't know how to solve the problems on the test, so he spent most of the class creating a program in his calculator to solve the problems for him and he spent the last ten minutes of class typing the questions into the calculator and writing out the answers. Definitely a "hacker" mentality there.

It also makes me think of middle school where this really smart student (who ended up graduating as the Valedictorian at his school) created a computer program on a disk that was essentially a tutor for the material we were learning. According to Hackers vs Crackers, there's a fine line between the hacker and the cracker: criminal intent.[11] Hackers are the good guys, the problem solvers, and the ones that see an issue and provide a solution. Both of these guys were hackers. They made the technology work for themselves and for others. Crackers are the ones that try to steal information, the criminal hackers.

Apparently, there are two different types of crackers: expert crackers are the ones who find a security hole and write programs to exploit it and "script kiddies" are crackers that use existing programs to exploit security holes. Expert crackers are not very common, luckily, and script kiddies are easier to stop and detect.[12]

@Hthrxlynn I learned a lot from this post about hackers and I have always thought they were the bad guys, but in turns out they were and are the good guys. The crackers as you have stated are the criminals, the bad guys. I didn't know that they were two different types of crackers which is crazy to me, but I can see how "script kiddies" are still around and still can be caught as you mentioned. I feel like "script kiddies" are kind of like people who hack into other people's social media. They are inexperienced people who steal the codes and programs of the software to attack other people's personal social media page, so I can see how a "script kiddie" could be anyone hacking into any websites. Vada.amerson (talk)Vada.amerson 06:30, 15 September 2019 (EDT)
@Vada.amerson: You're probably right. Script kiddies basically use the programs that crackers have already created.

September 19: Bill Gates' Sassy Letter

I find myself drawn to discuss Bill Gate's Open Letter to Hobbyists. I found myself laughing when the narrator started aggressively reading this letter written by Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates discussing software piracy.

I understand his anger and why he felt the need to address this issue. As an artist myself, I can think of a few times when people copied my work or even took photos of my work and shared them, claiming they were their own. Gates wrote in his letter, "Who can afford to do professional work for nothing? What hobbyist can put 3-man years into programming, finding all bugs, documenting his product and distribute for free? The fact is, no one besides us has invested a lot of money in hobby software."[13] The proprietary software vendors are "profit-seeking" while open source software is more of a collaborative project with legal criteria to keep it used for the purpose the creator made it for.[14] Of course Bill Gates would feel how he does about the hobbyists. Microsoft produces proprietary software! He told them "Most directly, the thing you do is theft," which he's right in the what his purpose for creating the software was. He didn't want them to collaborate and share, he wanted to control what his software looked like and what it did and what users could do with it.

I think this is a great example of the blurry lines in new media. The intent of the creator defines what the user can and can't do with the product. Sometimes, the creator feels strongly enough about it to write a sassy letter to the public.

@Hthrxlynn: I love the name of this article, and I agree with you when you state that the lines revolving around new media are blurred. I also empathize with you when it comes to being an artist, and having others copy or use your own work. If something is created by you, you should have full authority over it; want to share it freely? Great. Want there to be certain terms regarding the use of your content? Also great. People are not entitled to work that is not theirs (don't get me started on my "fairness," "equality," or "sharing is caring" soapbox). Shannamartini (talk) 00:22, 22 September 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: I think there's definitely two sides to the story. I have worked on my own artwork and once I did a huge collaboration project as an artist. Both had their perks and drawbacks for sure, which can relate to the different types of software.

September 19: Relating Lesson 4 to New Media

Learning the difference between Open Source Software and Proprietary Software this week changed the way I feel about creating for new media.

I am compelled to agree with artists who create work and don't want others to take credit for their work. In the beginning, I found myself on Bill Gates' side. Though I found his rant letter comedic, I agreed that he created this software and that in order to make a living from that, people had to stop pirating it.[13]

However, I like the idea of what GNU stood for. Richard Stallman expressed that his goal was to create a software system that would be free for anyone who could use it, calling for volunteers to donate time, money, programs, and equipment.[15] In a world where Wikipedia exists, it's easy to see where the collaborative efforts of volunteers come together to create something great that everyone can use.

In a world that is so connected by new media, it's almost makes too much sense to be collaborating whether it's for Open Source Software, Wikipedia, or voting on Instagram to create an interesting Youtube video. In the same way that I feel like it's pointless for an artist not to take critique on their work, proprietary software doesn't allow room for criticism from outside sources or opportunities for growth by allowing people to make changes. I don't see the point in just letting something be subpar.

@Hthrxlynn: Richard Stillman I also think came up with a great idea when he believed open source software should be free for use because it is so many people in the world that have such great ideas on how system might perform better whether something needs to be added or taken out. I also found myself agreeing with Bruce Perens that some source codes could be free or you could purchase if you choose but with that it is always the best material that they make you purchase. We do live in a world of new media you eventually get tired of the old and start to want something new like the switch everyone made from Myspace to Facebook as well as the constant change Instagram and Snapchat make within themselves. KhajadaNeal (talk) 11:01, 20 September 2019 (EDT)
@KhajadaNeal: I like the idea of open source software better, too. I would rather have my technology work for me than me working for the technology!
@Hthrxlynn: You should give Linux a try. I currently use Mint on my ThinkPad. —Grlucas (talk) 06:34, 26 September 2019 (EDT)
@Grlucas: I'll give it a shot!
@Hthrxlynn: For me, I feel as though I can see both sides of the proprietary and open source software. I feel as though artists,as you mention, who create their own works and do not want others to take credit for it have the right to feel that way and are free to take that route. On the other hand, I do think that having GNU system gives people more than one option to choose from. People are not forced to just use one system and I think that gives people a better chance to see what works best for them. MGray1196 (talk) 03:21, 23 September 2019 (EDT)
@MGray1196: I agree. There's definitely perks to both.
@Hthrxlynn: GNU still exists: you wrote "stood for." Strong, thoughtful writing here. Please see my feedback that I will be updating through the day on 9/24/19. —Grlucas (talk) 06:34, 26 September 2019 (EDT)
@Grlucas: Thank you! You're right, I guess I was thinking when GNU was formed but it does still exist today so it still stands for those original ideas!

September 25: Participating in Participatory Culture

I liked this week's lesson because it's something familiar from other classes I've taken with Dr. Sidore. Participatory culture is an interesting idea all around. I feel like we see more of it now than they saw when they were giving their TED Talks.

Participatory culture describes a complex culture in which consumers actively participate in spreading and creating new content. [16] The idea of participatory culture as complex as it is now must have been strange when Henry Jenkins first started writing about it in 1992. He even mentions in his Ted Talk that he didn't invent the idea of participatory culture, but that it has existed since the 19th century, where young people were typing and printing zines.[17] It's cool that he gets to watch it all unfold over his lifetime. Most social media websites that we use on a day-to-day basis rely on the users to participate heavily, such as YouTube and Instagram. Websites like Wikipedia are built around people contributing information.

Lawrence Lessig has a bit more of a romanticized idea of participatory culture where members of the culture have a desire to collaborate with other members, which he discusses as a remix culture. I liked how he called cultures "read-write" or "read only" cultures, like the different types of CD-roms. That helped put the idea into perspective for me. When you have a "read-write" CD, you can add and take away data on the disc whereas if it's "read only" you can only view and copy what's on the disc.

That being said, Lessig's "read-write" or "remix" culture is a lot like Henry Jenkins' "participatory" culture. They both rely heavily on the members of the culture to share and use each others works. Lessig just took a more political stance on the idea and went after the copyright laws that prohibit remixing.

@Hthrxlynn: I like how you pointed out the differences and similarities between Jenkins and Lessig. After watching them both, I noticed how Lessig came off much more aggressively and proactively than Jenkins; they both made similar points but the way they went about describing and proposing solutions was like night and day in comparison. Jenkins was very passionate but soft, and I liked his stance a bit better. Although, I did like the way Lessig used "RO" and "RW." It was a good way to take a potentially complex topic and provide it in an uncomplicated and easy-to-undertstand manner. Shannamartini (talk) 13:40, 29 September 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: You're right, Lessig is much more aggressive than Jenkins!Hthrxlynn (talk) 19:19, 1 October 2019 (EDT)

September 27: All Time Low Piracy

This week's lesson was super interesting to me because it reminded me of a band that I used to listen to a lot when I was younger, All Time Low. This introduced me to the struggle of being a musician. This is why I chose to read Courtney Love's article on Salon.

Alex Gaskarth, frontman of the band All Time Low, is known to leak his own music through social media. In an interview with OC Weekly, Gaskarth openly admitted to leaking his own music, stating "we felt the people needed to hear something new." [18] Thinking about it now, this was a good way of connecting with the fans and letting them feel like for Gaskarth and the rest of All Time Low, it was about more than just the money. I remember going to see them live at Warped Tour one year. All of the other bands stayed in their buses, but All Time Low walked freely throughout the venue, greeting fans and taking photos along the way and enjoying the other bands playing.

Reading Love's article reminded me of All Time Low and points out that not everyone wants to do things the "right" way. The music industry is basically stacked up against the artists that are producing the music and racked up for the record labels. It makes sense that Gaskarth would leak his own music. It doesn't really cost him anything to do it, but the relationship he has with his fans is more important. Creating that relationship makes his fans more willing to see them in concert, pay for the merchandise, and even pay for the full album.

@Hthrxlynn: I like how you used your love of music to choose the article you researched; great idea! You definitely learn more and are more engaged when the topic interests you. And I agree, Alex Gaskarth's approach to being on a more open and friendly basis with his fans probably helped their popularity greatly. Shannamartini (talk) 13:40, 29 September 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: I remember feeling so cool back in the day when Alex Gaskarth leaked their music and I heard it before everyone else. I felt like I had a relationship with the band on that level!Hthrxlynn (talk) 19:18, 1 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I enjoyed reading this. I love how you used your favorite band to connect them with this week's lesson. I don't know much about All Time Low, I have heard two songs from them, but reading your journal and getting a little insight to how they operate makes me want to look more into their discography. Gaskarth leaking music to his fans builds his fanbase and keeps his fanbase happy. Artist today really do have it bad in sense, they have so much music that they want to share with their fans, but the labels don't allow that so they just leak it someway. Armond.trice (talk) 23:00, 29 September 2019 (EDT)
@Armond.trice: It's cool to me that he would do that for the fans, you know? I agree, it was a great way to build his fanbase.Hthrxlynn (talk) 19:18, 1 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I think you used an excellent example for this post, Heather. When people say illegal downloading and leaks are "stealing" from the artists, I don't think they consider that artists actually see very little of the profit their product is actually bringing in as most of it goes back to the record company. I really believe that for most artists, their drive is to create and share their music or product with others, profit be damned. Though obviously, they still want to be fairly credited Shicks95 (talk)
@Shicks95: Maybe they poised it that way in the beginning! Maybe the record companies make it out like you're stealing from the artists because they know you don't care about the record companies.Hthrxlynn (talk) 19:18, 1 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I enjoyed reading your post.I never thought about artist who leak their music for themselves or their fans. Do you believe he did this solely to connect to the fan or was the idea of them supporting them through concert and merchandise sales? HashondraJames (talk) 23:30, 29 September 2019
@HashondraJames: Probably a bit of both! Hthrxlynn (talk) 19:18, 1 October 2019 (EDT)

October 3: School's Out Forever

While I found Ted Nelson's excerpt to be fascinating and ahead of its time, I want to focus on Sugata Mitra's TED Talk for this journal entry.

I have always found technology to be very easy. My family had a joke that if you handed me a device and left me alone with it for ten minutes, I'd figure out how to use it. Any new phone, radio, car (as far as setting up bluetooth and playing with the radios that keep getting new features), computer, or game device that we received, they gave to me first to learn how to use it and then teach them what to do with it. This is why "Build a School in the Cloud" stood out to me.

I followed up on his "School in the Cloud", which has indeed made it to all seven continents with eight dedicated labs, the first of which opened in December 2013.[19] I feel like this project is the epitome of "being digital." The only thing Mitra did was provide the tool to learn. He didn't even tell them how to use it. He just gave it to the children and they took off from there.

This story reminds me of the other story from a previous TED talk from Negroponte, if I'm not mistaken. He told the story of a student that was deemed illiterate playing on a computer and explaining it to someone who came into the room. The tool was provided, the student figured out how to use it and what to do with it. That's the amazing part of digital media.

The sad part to me is that the older people get, the less they want to learn the new tools. My grandmother just got a cordless phone and flat screen tv last year. She is amazed that I can do all of these basic tasks with a computer but refuses to learn how to do anything herself. Instead she just calls me and asks me if I can "go to the amazon and buy some compression socks" or whatever.

I think Mitra's "School in the Cloud" could apply to everyone, not just the ones that haven't finished school yet. The "big questions" can be more than just quantum physics. This school could instill a new kind of learning that expands beyond just a young age.

@Hthrxlynn: I agree with you about trying to get older people to use technology. My aunt always texts me when she gets confused about using her TV. But we have to also see it from their perspective. The technology generations before us grew up with used to be simple but over the years it keeps getting more and more complex. Think about it. We went from giant bulky cell phones that needed their own bags that were only able to make calls, to handheld cell phones that could send texts, to smartphones that are basically computers that can make calls, send texts, emails, take photos and play games. It can do all that and fit in your hand. All of this happened in less than half a century so it is understandable why some people are still dealing with a bit of a culture shock. --Jkoplin1 (talk) 14:10, 5 October 2019 (EDT)Jkoplin1
@Jkoplin1: I don't think it's necessarily about getting older people to use technology. It's about the desire to learn new things in general. Technology is just the medium for that! Hthrxlynn (talk) 22:31, 6 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I chuckled when I read the part about your grandmother, mine do the same thing! You would think they would want to learn how to use our newest technology, especially since they of all people need things to help make their lives easier! Oh well, gives me an excuse to go visit my grandma now! Concerning your journal, I think it is fascinating that people with no prior exposure can adapt and learn on their own intricate devices such as these "hole in the wall" computers, and I can relate with you in regards of learning a new device very quickly on my own; I was always able to get into my parents' computers and phones when I was little, and video games were a breeze for me after only a day or so! New media is so important and valuable in that they ARE easy to navigate if we just dedicate our time to learning them. I think what Mitra and Nelson are trying to push for is a more vigorous approach to new media and putting more emphasis on learning how to use and create it for our future generations to improve and simplify society. With the world advancing at the rate it is now, school WILL eventually become something we can do on our own, which would help get rid of debt and other various issues that are associated with the school system. Shannamartini (talk) 16:44, 6 October 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: You worded it so well: it is a vigorous approach to new media. I absolutely love the idea of school shifting to being totally online and education being available to everyone! Hthrxlynn (talk) 22:31, 6 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: A thoughtful response. Remember, there should be no space between your punctuation mark and your footnote. Remember the importance of secondary sources. —Grlucas (talk) 06:57, 8 October 2019 (EDT)

October 4: The Jetsons

The future is a lot closer than it seems. It's funny that there's a children's cartoon from the 1960s about people living in the future and driving flying cars, but I got to thinking about the fact that even the Jetsons were still driving their cars.

Chris Dixon predicts eleven things the future will hold, number one being self-driving cars and number four being flying cars and drones. [20] The interesting thing to me, though, is how much is actually being done to reach this goal. The article was written in 2016 and here we are almost four years later with Uber announcing an "autonomous air taxi" they are hoping to have in business by 2023.[21]

The eVTOL (electric vertical take off and landing) aircraft look very futuristic. According to Uber's website, they are planning to start testing in cities as early as 2020. [22] That honestly blows my mind.

But what does this mean about new media?

New media, as I now understand it, is more about connectivity, capability, and the devices that make this possible. We are quickly moving toward a world where our devices will do everything for us. Soon, we will carry around devices that call these eVTOL aircraft to our local landing pad and fly (a short distance) to where we need to go.

@Hthrxlynn: It is crazy how The Jetsons were ahead of there time and still are because I would have imagined us in flying cars by now. Thinking more about the advancement in technology I wonder is having everything done for us really a good thing? or does it make us futuristically lazy to not want to think or physically do anything for ourselves.KhajadaNeal (talk) 12:36, 5 October 2019 (EDT)
@KhajadaNeal: Do you think it will make us lazy or more efficient? If we have devices to do things for us, we can use out time better! For example, if I didn't have to drive myself 45 minutes to school and work every day, I could use that extra hour and thirty minutes or so to do homework or create artwork! Hthrxlynn (talk) 13:13, 5 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: Me personally it would be lazy. Yes I would like to be able to pop up anywhere I want to be instead of walking or driving but then I think of health issues and how that would take away from exercise and possible eating problems. Then having something that does your work for you, are you really learning? People will get too dependent on technology a lot of people already think smartphone’s cause a lack of communication in this generation.
@Hthrxlynn: We are all lazy enough, at the rate we are going machines might permanently take over our jobs. Not really, but the fact that we have achieved some of the things that he predicted on the list is amazing. I always wonder what will be the next big thing to happen next. By the way your titles always hook me every time, you had my attention when I read Jetsons. Armond.trice (talk) 23:14, 6 October 2019 (EDT)
@Armond.trice: Thanks! I try to keep them interesting! I think it's a matter of perspective on laziness. It's easy to get lazy when you have machines to do things for you, but you could also choose to use your time more effectively! Hthrxlynn (talk) 23:55, 7 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: Yes, the Jetson's were ahead of their time with the projected technology of the future, but they maintained old ideaology on work-life balance. Mr. Cogsworth had a very 50s mentality of how to run a cog factory. Opposite of the revolutionary 60s at the time the Jetson's aired on Television. I also read the Chris Dixons article and most of the things on the list are already in place like the impossible Whopper at Burger King and self-driving cars for those who can afford them (Tesla). New Media has advantages it will be interesting to see what Dixon's list looks like in 2026.--Amayesing77 (talk) 00:10, 7 October 2019 (EDT)
@Amayesing77: You're right! The creators could only see so far into the future! Hthrxlynn (talk) 23:55, 7 October 2019 (EDT)

October 9: Mr. Bungle

This week's lesson was particularly interesting because I chose A Rape in Cyberspace as the article that I will be editing this semester. The title of the article immediately addresses something that, without context, seems impossible yet still serious. Reading the article raised many questions in my mind. If "cyber" refers to anything dealing with computers or computer networks,[23] how can it be that someone is raped in the "cyberspace" and how do we take the situation seriously? What's the appropriate level of seriousness to deal with this situation?

In his 1996 article, "A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace", John Perry Barlow said "we will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace."[24] This article was written in response to the Telecommunications Reform Act that had just passed in the United States. The goal was to keep the government away from governing "cyberspace" in the way that it governs the physical world.

I get where he's coming from, but obviously, the "cyberspace" governing itself hasn't worked out too well. In the case of Mr. Bungle, someone came in and violated that "civilization of the mind" when he used a "voodoo doll software" to violate someone else's avatar.[25] Although this isn't a physical interaction, the users put their minds out there and for those two unfortunate victims, their minds were violated in the form of a digital avatar.

How do you punish that crime? What do you do to stop it from happening again? In Rethinking the Jurisprudence of Cyberspace, the authors emphasize that "cyberspace" is a "legal space" and not just a "technical space" that needs to be analyzed and dealt with as such.[26]

After watching "You Only Live Twice: Virtual Reality Meets Real World in Second Life" this week, I see an increasing need for attorneys in the "cyberspace," especially because real money is involved. I disagree with Barlow about not having a regulatory body in the "cyberspace" and a certain level of punishment outside of a specific website for a crime like Mr. Bungle's. Those terms need to be defined, which is what is only beginning to be addressed (because in Rethinking the Jurisprudence of Cyberspace, they are mainly focusing on which physical-space laws translate into the "cyberspace").

October 10: Web Politics and Wizards 101

Sir Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web in the 1990s with the intention of it reaching its full potential, only achievable if the web was available to anyone, anywhere, at any time for free and without the need for permission.[7] He understood the significance of allowing people to bring what they have to the table and collaborate on this massive project that created the "cyberspace" as we know it.

Berners-Lee approaches the web with a very optimistic and idealistic mindset. He sees the potential and has concerns for where the future is headed and how to preserve his original creation.[27] People are using the web in a way that lines up with the Uses and Gratifications Theory, which requires some level of creativity and influence to make the web work for each individual.

This week's lesson reminds me of when I was younger and took part in the online world of Wizard101. I was invested in the game. I had a wizard "family" of strangers that I communicated with on a regular basis, a wizard boyfriend, and would meet up with my friends at 4:15 every day after school to play during my allotted hour of computer time.

When my wizard boyfriend dumped me, I was devastated. I stopped playing. At such a young age, it shattered my confidence that this virtual boy didn't want me (not to mention in 2008 I hated brushing my hair and hadn't had braces yet). The Wizard101 world no longer satisfied my needs for belonging and I had to find somewhere else to go in the "cyberspace". Cue the obsession with Facebook games such as Farmville where it was really me playing (or rather my profile that represented the real version of me).

Now in 2019, if you don't have some sort of profile somewhere to represent you, you're behind. I believe this is the influence New Media has had on our identities. If everyone is a part of the internet, everyone has a stake in it. This is why Berners-Lee wants people to feel responsible for it. Our online presence is almost as important as our physical presence, with the main stipulation being that the online presence doesn't exist without some sort of physical presence.

@Hthrxlynn: I think for me virtual world games were my way to be controlling I hate when things don’t go as planned but when I play The Sims 2 I can control everything. I think I felt behind when instagram first came out I didn't want it but a lot of my friends started getting it so I went ahead and made one. KhajadaNeal (talk) 15:00, 12 October 2019 (EDT)
@KhajadaNeal: There's definitely a lot of pressure to join the online world! My boyfriend doesn't have any social media accounts but had no choice but to create a Gmail account in order to access YouTube to the full extent. There's always a push toward creating more and more accounts. I'm sure I have a thousand by now. Hthrxlynn (talk) 23:52, 14 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I agree. New media definitely has an influence on our identities or how we present ourselves. I had a Myspace page when I was younger (when I was not supposed to and I soon got in trouble for it) and presented myself as a totally different person there. In a way this was my role-playing virtual world. I had to be a "cool" girl and not the shy middle school girl that also did not like to brush her hair. I initially started Myspace because I was feeling left behind by all my friends who had an account. I felt like you said, that I didn't have a physical presence without it. Sabub (talk)
@Sabub: I can definitely relate! I remember in middle school, when you couldn't have a MySpace account, you had ShoutLife. I created an account only to find no one wanted to add me as a friend. I started reaching out to strangers and building friendships with them. I kept creating more accounts on different websites to keep up with the trends. This eventually branched out into Tumblr in high school where I made friends with someone from the UK that I still talk to today! Hthrxlynn (talk) 23:52, 14 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn:I agree with your comment about people having some sort of profile. I think it is harder finding people who do not have a profile of some sort. Having a social media profile whether its something like Facebook or Twitter seems as through it is something people have to have these days. It is like have a virtual ID. Your profile has your name, where you are from, and your age. We are living in some interesting times and I think as time goes on, things will become even more interesting. MGray1196 (talk) 23:51, 13 October 2019 (EDT)
@MGray1196: Even the professional world requires some sort of online presence, as we have learned in our other class together! We have to have a LinkedIn account and a website so people can know who we are! Hthrxlynn (talk) 23:52, 14 October 2019 (EDT)

October 18: Red Dead Redemption 2, The Best of Both Worlds SPOILER ALERT!!

I love getting to talk about video games with great storylines and don't really get the chance to often, so I was really excited about this week's lesson. I also feel like I should mention that I don't actually play the games. The point of view triggers my motion sickness, but my boyfriend plays the games while I work on artwork so I love listening to the story line of the games. If the game doesn't have a good story line, Keegan won't play it.

The Game

When Red Dead Redemption 2 was released at the end of 2018, we bought it thinking it would be similar to the Uncharted series or God of War: the character is given a mission with little room for exploring in order to move the story along. While both of those games had fantastic stories, Red Dead 2 provided a new aspect of gaming in which there was a plot to move along but there were also side missions, room for exploration, and hidden places and items along the extremely large and impressively artistic map.

The part that interested me the most was the ending of the game. The main character, Arthur, is dying of tuberculosis. He faces a traitor from their gang, in which Arthur loses but a side character, John, escapes with his family. The point is, Arthur gave his life for John and his family. I wasn't even playing the game, but was so emotionally invested in Arthur's character that I cried when he died and was pissed at John because I felt like his character was a dumbass and Arthur deserved to live more than John did. The game isn't over at this point, however. The game continues and the player is now John. There was a lot less investment in John however, as the game reaches its close, I felt more indifferent to John as I "got to know him". I still like Arthur better and begged Keegan to restart the game so Arthur would be alive again.

The point of this story is to demonstrate the power of the narrative in the story. Although there was a plot to follow, the characters interact with others as they walk by them, the player can personalize the character's hair and clothes, the player has to feed the character and cut his hair and even has to make the character rest or else the character's stamina will suffer. The game designers did a great job of investing the user into the character.

@Hthrxlynn: The way you presented the importance of the narrative to Red Dead Redemption really did resonate with me. I can relate to your emotional attachment to the players and subsequent longing for the closure at the end of the game through its narrative. It was interesting to hear a different perspective, as I myself believe that games should more often be interactive and not narratively constrained; that being said, ultimately I feel the directive of a game, whether narrative or not, should only be relevant to the player, and that there is a time and place for both of them. I have enjoyed both types of games. Personally, I like the non-narratives best. But to each his own! Shannamartini (talk) 00:53, 20 October 2019 (EDT)
@Shannamartini: I think that sometimes, the game creators force the plot on the players too much. The main difference I saw in Red Dead Redemption 2 is that you could roam around and come back to the plot at any given time. That added so much more to the game. The player can play poker against other characters, go see a live show or a movie (it's set in 1899 so it's one of those cute moving picture shows), go climb a mountain, go fishing, or even go hunting. Keegan's favorite pass-time is finding bad guys, tying them up, and feeding them to alligators! Hthrxlynn (talk) 01:33, 20 October 2019 (EDT)
Why It's Relevant

I find myself to be more aligned with the narratologist view. I appreciate a video game more when there's a story to be told. But from a ludology standpoint, I think there's an interesting aspect of allowing the user to explore the map the game makers have created. I've never been as emotionally attached to a character as I am to Arthur, but that's probably because the user physically walks in his shoes. The comments Arthur makes when he looks in the mirror, the differences in the way he interacts with other characters, not to mention that the user has control over whether Arthur is dominantly a "good" or "bad" guy definitely creates a deeper connection.

Jesper Juul, a ludologist, makes a claim that "Games and stories are very different things. (Story here understood as a fixed sequence of events.) What makes a game a game is exactly what makes it a non-story. It is a mistake to design games that try to be “story-like” and it is a mistake to analyze games as stories." [28] I find that idea to be incorrect. The more invested a player is in the game, the better the story has to be. The plot of the games should be analyzed as a story because it offers something that movies can't: alternate endings and a chance to start over and try again.

With so much depending on the player, the story is extremely important. How you reach a certain ending matters and each ending has to be worth getting to. Manfred Jahn defines three things that are key to his Guide to the Theory of Narrative:

  • Narrative: anything that tells or presents a story.
  • Story: a sequence of events involving characters.
  • Narrator: the teller of the narrative. [29]

Red Dead Redemption 2 has these three things. The game presents a story to be told about a gang from the Wild West. The story revolves around the falling out of the gang and involves a connection with multiple characters, especially Arthur. The narrator is Arthur, as the player sees the world through his eyes and the story unfolds through his interaction with other characters.

I think this game proves that narratology and ludology can exist together in one game. Granted, the game might have to be downloaded on two separate disks due to such a high amount of game data!

@Hthrxlynn: I liked that you use the narrative of Red Dead Redemption 2! The story was so amazing. It was also two endings to the game. I remember buying the game and being hooked for like a week. I was so invested into the game, the characters, the choices I made with Arthur had to be honorable. The gameplay tested our emotions and moral compass. Some decisions I tried to be honorable, but there would be something happen such as me getting robbed or shot at that would make me think twice about helping someone out or just going through with a mission. I really enjoyed this and your perspective of the game. I also agree that there has to be a story within a video game to keep players engaged. Armond.trice (talk) 20:03, 20 October 2019 (EDT)
@Armond.trice: It's such a good game! Keegan has played to get both endings! The choices you make do reveal a lot about your character, especially the first time you play. Hthrxlynn (talk) 20:46, 21 October 2019 (EDT)


October 19: In Addition...

If you are reading this journal entry just to reply for the assignment, please read my previous entry as well for more context. This journal entry is built upon things I wrote about in my last entry. Thank you!

After reading Espen Aarseth's Genre Trouble, although he wrote for the other argument, I found that most of what he said supported my previous journal entry. This reinforced my view that there's a shift being made from a game just being a set of rules to follow to accomplish a goal to a complex storyline for the player to uncover.

The main argument from my previous discussion that I found support for in Genre Trouble was that "it was stated that the difference between films and games was simply the "interactivity" of the games."[30] I think this is an interesting aspect to the way new media comes into play in the games.

The fact that games are becoming so immersive adds a new element to everything. The "reader" of the text is no longer an outsider, they are heavily involved and invested in the game and characters.

@Hthrxlynn: I absolutely agree with your standpoint about having stories in video games because it does engage the players to be invested in the game. I didn't understand in depth and breadth as you mentioned in your connection with Arthur. I didn't know that video games could emotionally affect users the way it did to you, but it's also a good thing for businesses to make their money, and to also play the games as a way for entertainment and a time to enjoy your time if that's what the user likes doing. Vada.amerson 20:43, 20 October 2019 (EDT)
@Vada.amerson: I agree! It also makes the player want to play again, which is great for the business as well. Hthrxlynn (talk) 20:46, 21 October 2019 (EDT)
@Hthrxlynn: I read your initial entry first. I appreciated your explanation about Red Dead Redepmtion 2 I don't play video games for the same reason it's a very disorienting experience. I've tried to watch my husband Jonathan play games similar to the game Keegan plays and you listen to. I can definitely see to draw to playing with this type of "interactivity" really interesting. As the payer you have control over your gaming experience and the many possible narratives of the story that will change as the player moves through the game world. --Amayesing77 (talk) 23:21, 20 October 2019 (EDT)
@Amayesing77: The world is worth exploring too, which I feel is a good addition to the game. It's not just about the plot. Hthrxlynn (talk) 20:46, 21 October 2019 (EDT)

December 6: The End

I am relieved to be writing this final journal entry. First and foremost, I would like to express gratitude to Dr. Lucas for allowing creative freedom during this class. I am only sorry that other students in the class lacked the initiative to take advantage of that freedom. I didn't think the class was difficult, it just required a lot of work as online classes typically do (and you warned us of that in the very beginning). I know that this was a frustrating semester, but I feel that it was mainly like this because the student had to act like an adult and keep up with their assignments rather than being coddled by due dates and reminders on D2L. This was a good class and showed the relevance of our major in many ways out in the real world.

That being said, let's talk about the Wikipedia assignment, shall we?

Wikipedia Assignment

I was lucky enough to have an article that was nominated for deletion at one point. By reading through their debates, I was able to quickly address a few big things that needed to be resolved in the article. When I chose this article, it was very short and almost all of the reference links were broken. There were hardly any references made through out the paper and there was a lot left out about the influence of the story. I figured this was a great place to begin and I started to make a list in my sandbox. Another student assigned themselves to the article and I was hoping to work together with them on the assignment, however that didn't quite work out.

I feel that my contributions definitely took the article to the next level. I added a lot more information in there about why the article matters. I also made sure to fix all of the links that were broken. Unfortunately, since the article is a bit dated, the references that were in the original article were all taken down from their original websites. This was one of the biggest challenges I faced. If I couldn't back up a claim, I had to remove it. At first I felt like I was just subtracting from the article and not really adding anything. It was extremely frustrating.

Luckily, I was able to start adding information toward the end of the semester. I came across a few really good articles, especially some more recent ones, that helped prove that the article is still relevant today. Then, the other student finally posted their work to the article which really helped me to fill in some spaces. I found random tidbits of information that I wasn't sure how to fit in until the other student started actively working on the article.

I'll be honest about the peer review, when I got to that point, there wasn't much to review. I said I would get back to it, but forgot. I did speak with the students I reviewed in person and over text about things they could do to improve their article, but that was about it. Luckily, the people that I reviewed also reviewed my article, so we provided feedback to one another in person.

I enjoyed working on Wikipedia again. I did this assignment before for the Writing for Digital Media class, so I knew what to expect when I read that we would be working with Wikipedia. I think it's cool that we are contributing to something in the real world. Writing a paper that only our teachers will read versus writing for a website that billions of people use is a huge step, but that's basically where we are headed after taking this class. We are graduating, our work matters beyond a classroom now. I am glad to get the real-world experience and I still creep on the Marie Laveau article that I did last year because I am proud of my work and my contributions.

@Hthrxlynn: First-rate work, Heather. Well done, and you should be proud of your work. —Grlucas (talk) 08:15, 8 December 2019 (EST)

References

Notes

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