User:Amorton10/NMAC 4460 Journal

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August 14, 2019: New Media

Journal #1

The way I look at new media is the way it is used today. All types of media are used in today's world. One type of new media that is used is social media. There are many ways that people nowadays can connect with one another. Most of the time people get in touch with other people through social media. And it's not even with a simple phone call. People now talk with people through twitter, text messaging, or any other type of social media platform. Social media as part of new media is a new way for people to get discovered. What I mean by that is, if a person is wanting to get a job or something, they can use their social media to put themselves out there for people to see what they do. Youtube is one other aspect that is popular in media in today's world. Youtube goes back to my point about people getting noticed. People can post all kinds of content on Youtube. People can post videos about whatever interests them on Youtube for people to see. Topics could range from them reviewing a certain topic like a movie to creating content of them showcasing a talent of theirs.

Journal #2

New Media has definitely had an influence on culture. There are different ways that it has impact the way we look at certain things. New Media influences the way that we as people go about our everyday lives. There are times where we seem to have difficulty staying away from our means of technology. All these types of new media are the way we communicate nowadays. One main thing I didn't know about new media is that it's a lot more in depth than I originally thought. According to Dr. George Lucas,"New Media are defined in at least two ways. One way is the digital devices that network our lives and the other way is the study of the change in scale, pace, or pattern of human affairs brought about by these gadgets". The second way that new media is defined is very interesting to me. It's interesting because the way we have technology today, all groups of people incorporate that type of media at different times. Sometimes it takes certain companies or some other type of business to feel comfortable using a certain type of new media. Lev Manovich in the article "New Media from Borges to HTML" takes a look at new media in a little bit different way. However, some aspects Manovich looks at are similar. Manovich states in the article, "But what exactly is new media? And what is new media art? Surprisingly, these questions remain to be not so easy to answer. The book you are now holding in your hands does provide very interesting answers to these questions; it also provides the most comprehensive foundation for new media field, in the process redefining it a very productive way". Manovich further states in the article, "Firstly, the speed with which new technologies are assimilated in the U.S. makes them “invisible” almost overnight: they become an assumed part of the everyday existence, something which does not seem to require much reflection about". Here he talks about how new media becomes part of a person's everyday life and how it gives a look of how people don't see a problem with it sometimes. Manovich states, "Secondly, we can explain the slowness of the U.S. engagement with new media art during the 1990s by the very minimal level of the public support for the arts there". Manovich shows here that the United States was a little behind on using some of the more modern media in the 1990's. But like people always say, "it's better late than never". One other way that Manovich looks at new media is using a type of new media to show how it works. Manovich says, "I would define cyberculture as the study of various social phenomena associated with Internet and other new forms of network communication". Manovich illustrates, "Examples of what falls under cyberculture studies are online communities, online multi-player gaming, the issue of online identity".[1] Manovich sees cyberculture as an example of new media because people nowadays are totally invested in video games. Video games are made now where people can play online with other people and compete against them. Sometimes that can be a bad thing as people could I guess you could say become that person they are when playing those games.

August 26, 2019: Foundations

Journal #3

These foundational thinkers are very interesting. It’s really cool to see how they give all their perspectives on certain things. It’s amazing to learn how they can link in some way how technology and communication has evolved and improved over time. From its early inception to its modern look, it’s a neat thing to see what all goes into the improvements of the different aspects and types of media and/or technology. One of the foundational thinkers that I took a look at was Vannevar Bush. One of the big contributions he made to technology and how we view it is a concept called the Memex. Bush defines in the article "As We May Think" the Memex as “a form of memory augmentation involving a microfilm based "device in which an individual store all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility.”[2] The Memex sounds like the early days a PC or a laptop. People nowadays store all kinds of things on their computer. Items such as photos are a big thing that people store on their computers because they put them on social media to let everyone know what they are up to. One other aspect of how the Memex is similar to a modern day computer is the memory aspect. People are always having to make more room on their computers for new things they need stored such as school work or as mentioned earlier photos. One other thinker that I took a look at was J.C.R. Licklider. Licklider is known for his introduction of the concept symbiosis, specifically man-computer symbiosis. Licklider defines man-computer symbiosis in the article Man-Computer Symbiosis as “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership”. Symbiosis is important to Licklider’s argument because he uses different types and aspects of technology to explain how it affects us as people. One goal that Licklider is going after in his article when it comes to symbiosis is “to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of technical problems”. Another goal that Licklider is trying to accomplish with symbiosis according to his article is to “bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in "real time," time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways”. ”[3]

Journal #4

Marshall McLuhan was one of the very important thinkers during his time. His concepts were very in depth and very widely looked at in certain way. One of his more famous works was The Medium is the Message. Now, at first, that might sound confusing. Which in most cases it is to a certain point exactly that. Different types of mediums have different concepts. McLuhan uses different types of mediums to be able to get his point across and what he’s trying to prove. In his article, McLuhan states, “The instance of the electric light may prove illuminating in this connection. The electric light is pure information. It is a medium without a message, as it were, unless it is used to spell out some verbal ad or name. This fact, characteristic of all media, means that the “content” of any medium is always another medium”. This example that McLuhan uses describes that a certain object is able to show what it’s all about without having to say a word. Like every now and then, people say that actions speak louder than words. Using the electric light as an example is a great way to make sense of this. McLuhan further states in his article, “Just before an airplane breaks the sound barrier, sound waves become visible on the wings of the plane. The sudden visibility of sound just as sound ends is an apt instance of that great pattern of being that reveals new and opposite forms just as the earlier forms reach their peak performance. Mechanization was never so vividly fragmented or sequential as in the birth of the movies, the moment that translated us beyond mechanism into the world of growth and organic interrelation”.[4] This example here that McLuhan used perfectly shows that even sound can be visibly seen by someone. If something is vibrating a person can see with their own eyes that something is going on. McLuhan also shows in this statement that sound can change directions depending on what the surroundings are to a certain object.

September 9, 2019: Being Digital

Journal #5

Negroponte is one of thinkers that have brought more modern ideas into the industry of media or types of media. He introduced a lot of unique and clever ideas to the world of media during his time. Negroponte provided several great theories and/or philosophies whichever way you want to look at it to the media industry world. One idea he introduced was about things being digital. As he states in his book Being Digital, “The best way to appreciate the merits and consequences of being digital is to reflect on the difference between bits and atoms”.[5] One way to look at what he is saying here is that sometimes people will have to be able to compare certain things to see how they are alike and how they are different. This is another way of doing like a pros and cons list in media in a way. The second idea that Negroponte presents is that “bits are bits”. What does he mean by this exactly? He addresses this in his book by saying, “First, bits commingle effortlessly. They start to get mixed up and can be used and reused together or separately”. He continues by saying, “Second, a new kind of bit is born. A bit that tells you about the other bits”.[6]What Negroponte is basically illustrating here is that bits just a non-stopping kind of medium and they just keep going. No matter how they are used, they are being used in all kinds of different ways in the digital media world. One last idea that Negroponte looks at is art in a digital age. Negroponte details this in his book by saying, “Computers and art can bring out the worst in each other when they first meet. One reason is that the signature of the machine can be too strong. It can overpower the intended expression, as occurs so often in holographic art and 3D movies”. What Negroponte is saying here is that they art tries to sabotage the media or technology on what it is supposed to be doing for the people. One other aspect of art in the digital age in his book says, “Not surprisingly, the mutual reinforcement of computers and art has been most effective in music and the performing arts, where the technology of performing, disseminating, and experiencing a work of art most easily commingles”.[7]The technology in music industry especially has seen a lot of changes in how it is available to the public throughout the years. There are several digital platforms that are convenient for people to purchase their music.

Journal #6

This whole hacker concept is very interesting. One of the most interesting parts of the whole thing is the positive end of it. Personally, I have always thought the concept of a hacker as a bad thing. After reading up on it, my mind has been changed to a certain extent. A lot of things go into being considered a hacker. Whether it’s being on the good end or the bad end of it, people put in the time needed. My understanding of the idea of being digital has become more clear now that I know more about hackers. Hackers and being digital kind of intertwine in a way, in my opinion. They intertwine because being digital is all about building up something in the digital media industry. The positive end of hacking as stated by Catherine Bracy in her TED Talk called “Why good hackers make good citizens”, “Benjamin Franklin was one of the greatest hackers of all time”. She also states, “Benjamin Franklin was one of America’s most prolific inventors”.[8]Benjamin Franklin is one of the most famous people in American. So, if he did indeed to some hacking then I guess it’s in fact after all not all that bad. The Mentor states in Hacker’s Manifesto, “Yes, I am a criminal. My crime is that of curiosity. My crime is that of judging people by what they say and think, not what they look like. My crime is that of outsmarting you, something that you will never forgive me for”.[9]What The Mentor is saying here is showing the negative side of what hacking is like. This last little part of this poem has just a negative sound to it and doesn’t sound positive at all. One might say is that it sounds like what people in today’s world think when he talks about what people think about something.

September 16, 2019: Proprietary vs. Open Software

Journal #7

An important observation after watching the film was the recognition of multiple differences between the Linux and Microsoft Windows operating systems (OS). Linux is an open source operating system that has access to source code, whereas Windows does not. Linux supports a greater variety of free software than Windows does. The Linux user has access to the source code of kernel and can change the code according to his or her need. In Windows, the user does not have access to the source code, only a select few in Windows has access. Regarding licensing, the Linux user is free to modify the software and can even sale the modified version. In Windows, users won't have access to source code and can't modify the software. Regarding usability, it's complicated to install Linux. However, it has the ability to finish complex tasks easier. In contrast, Windows is an easier system to operate but takes longer to install. Windows is targeted more by hackers causing viruses and malware due to the fact that Linux is more secure and it's easier to identify such things as bugs and to fix them.[10]

@Amorton10: Actually it's pretty easy to install Linux. I think you need more support for your suppositions on Linux here. —Grlucas (talk) 06:19, 26 September 2019 (EDT)

Journal #8

This lesson has had all different types of concepts. Software has come a long way since its first inception. Software nowadays has a lot more abilities to be able to work. There are all kinds of special aspects that have changed with software over the years and throughout the decades. There were many things I have learned throughout this lesson. One of the more intriguing things that I learned in this lesson is about copyleft. Copyleft is something that I had not really thought about before. When you hear copyleft, you immediately think copyright. Copyleft is the rule that when redistributing the program, you cannot add restrictions to deny other people the central freedoms of free software.[11] There is always some twist to the legal terms when it comes to certain things. Even though there is a way around it here in some respects, you still can't make it your own to an extent. Even though you are redistributing software, you cannot under any circumstances make any sort of changes in any way to the software. Learning about all these aspects has in some ways allowed me to see the different perspectives of software. Software will continue to change and improve in the years to come. Software will continue to improve all of its settings and characteristics so people will not have any issues with their computers or laptops in the future.

@Amorton10: Some good points here, but you are still missing references. Yes, you have links, but that is not good enough for writing on the wiki. They do not even seem contextualized. Please see my feedback that I will be updating through the day on 9/24/19. —Grlucas (talk) 06:19, 26 September 2019 (EDT)

September 23, 2019: Remix and Participatory Culture

Journal 9

Lessig is one of the more innovative thinkers in new media. He expresses several different types of ideas in all of his contributions to the field. Lessig talks about all the types of culture in new media. He also helps give an understanding of certain concepts when it comes to more of the modern take on new media and the culture surrounding it. One of the concepts he goes into detail about is remix. <What Lessig means when he says remix is a culture that allows individuals to edit existing material in order to create derivative content. Remix is also important in contribution of RW creativity. With the greater development of the internet throughout the years and the increased capabilities of digital technology, opportunities to revive RW culture exist. Digital technology allows and celebrates amateur contributions to rewrite creativity.[12] For example, in regards to music, as long as the remix is not done for commercial use or profit then there should be no opposition to that particular practice. Technology in the digital world will continue to advance, making remixing easier for all ages. This practice will continue to increase therefore it is essential for the RW and RO cultures to coexist.

Journal 10

The different types of culture in new media definitely took their approaches the more modern route when it came to the different types of new media. One of them was participatory culture. Jenkins states in his book Convergence Culture, “The term, participatory culture, contrasts with older notions of passive media spectatorship. Rather than talking about media producers and consumers as occupying separate roles, we might now see them as participants who interact with each other according to a new set of rules that none of us fully understands. Not all participants are created equal.” This sounds just like the words themselves sound. Participation is key when it comes to certain things. Participation is important because the more that it occurs, the more that gets done in culture. Convergence on the other hand is a little bit different. Jenkins further states, “Convergence does not occur through media appliances, however sophisticated they may become. Convergence occurs within the brains of individual consumers and through their social interactions with others.”[13]Going by what is said here, convergence culture and participatory culture are more similar than they are different. In both cases, people are needed to be able to interact and talk with one another to get things done. Learning all of this has allowed me to see how participation and being able to interact with others is so important in culture nowadays. Allowing our ideas to be heard in new media is a way to be able to improve things.

I think it's and important point that sometimes gets lost is that ultimately, media is not the product of the devices that are used to create it. It is a product of those who use those devices to create something. Now that not only are devices to create media being more available to the average person, but channels to distribute their creativity are also becoming more common. ParkerJennings (talk) 01:01, 30 September 2019 (EDT)
@Amorton10: You should probably see me again. Did you proof this? You just have a small typo on your references, but you should have fixed them. —Grlucas (talk) 17:19, 1 October 2019 (EDT)

September 30, 2019: Hackschooling

Journals 11-12

I learned multiple things throughout this lesson. This lesson seems to go in more detail about the different types of technology that we use in today’s society. Computers are a big part of today’s society. We need access to them for most of our jobs on a daily basis. Ted Nelson states in his article “Computer Lib”, “But computers are very special, and we have to deal with them everywhere, and this effectively gives the computer priesthood a stranglehold on the operation of all large organizations, of government bureau, and everything else that they run. Members of Congress are now complaining about control of information by the computer people, that they cannot get the information even though it’s on computers.”[14] Going by what Nelson is saying here, computers are becoming a big part of everyday life and it does not matter what type of occupation it happens to be. Computers are an essential part in the work place. One way that we can consider ourselves as “being digital” is how infatuated we are with our cellphones or other kinds of technologies nowadays. David Sax states in his article “Our Love Affair With Technology is Over”, “A decade ago I bought my first smartphone, a clunky little BlackBerry 8830 that came in a sleek black leather sheath. I loved that phone. I loved the way it effortlessly slid in and out of its case, loved the soft purr it emitted when an email came in, loved the silent whoosh of its trackball as I played Brick Breaker on the subway and the feel of its baby keys clicking under my fat thumbs. Today, when my phone is on, I feel anxious and count down the hours to when I am able to turn it off and truly relax.”[15] This is a complete turnaround from what he once thought. We as people become so obsessed with our phones that we forget what it’s like to have a normal conversation with someone. Because of this when we get in a social situation, it can sometimes get awkward because we might not have access to our phone at the time and that’s a big problem.

@Amorton10: Missing a post (no, you cannot just combine posts). No one wants to read big blocks of text on screen. See the beginning lesson 3 again: formatting basics. Once again, please use paragraphs and citation templates. Your <ref> tags are still incorrect. You make posts on your journal. You do not have many journals. Please make a point of signing up for a face-to-face session. I'm requiring this for you. —Grlucas (talk) 06:45, 8 October 2019 (EDT)

October 7, 2019: Cyberspace

Journal Post 13

There were several things that I got out of the things in this lesson. I got a better idea of what the virtual world in new media is like. There are positives and negatives that come with the virtual reality world in new media. But that’s just like anything else. Everything comes with its positives and negatives. One thing that I learned about in this lesson is the Bungle Affair. Julian Dibbel states in his article, “A Rape in Cyberspace”, “For the Bungle Affair raises questions that — here on the brink of a future in which human existence may find itself as tightly enveloped in digital environments as it is today in the architectural kind — demand a clear-eyed, sober, and unmystified consideration. It asks us to shut our ears for the time being to techno utopian ecstasies and look without illusion upon the present possibilities for building, in the on-line spaces of this world, societies more decent and free than those mapped onto dirt and concrete and capital. It asks us to behold the new bodies awaiting us in virtual space undazzled by their phantom powers, and to get to the crucial work of sorting out the socially meaningful differences between those bodies and our physical ones.”[16] The virtual world has a way of making us as a society feel and react a certain way to the aspects of the cyber world and its surroundings.

Journal Post 14

While reading through this lesson, I also got a better understanding of what goes into the concept of cyberspace. John Perry Barlow states in his article, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”, “Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications. Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live.”[17] We sometimes as people get to the point where we start to become the virtual world that we know so well. Role playing games are also a big part of the virtual world. Sherry Turkle states in her article, “Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality: Playing in the MUDs”, “Role playing games are able to serve in this evocative capacity precisely because they are not simple escapes from the real to the unreal, but because they stand betwixt and between, both in and not in real life. But in the final analysis, what puts Julee's game most firmly in the category of game is that it had an end point. The weekend was over and so was the game.”[18] People that are dealing with things no matter what they are can for a few hours take part in these games and enjoy doing what gets them in a good mood.


  1. Manovich, Lev (2003). "New Media from Borges to HTML" (PDF). The MIT Press: 1/29.
  2. Bush, Vannevar (1945). "As We May Think". As We May Think: 1–18.
  3. Licklider, J.C.R. (1960). Symbiosis "Man-Computer Symbiosis" Check |url= value (help). HFE-1: 4–11.
  4. McCluhan, Marshall (1964). Medium is the Message "The Medium is the Message" Check |url= value (help): 1–18.
  5. name="Nicholas Negroponte 1995">Negroponte, Nicholas (January 1996). Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books. p. 11. ISBN 0-679-76290-6.
  6. name="Nicholas Negroponte 1995">Negroponte, Nicholas (January 1996). Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books. p. 18. ISBN 0-679-76290-6.
  7. name="Nicholas Negroponte 1995">Negroponte, Nicholas (January 1996). Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books. p. 223. ISBN 0-679-76290-6.
  8. name="Catherine Bracy 2013">Bracy, Catherine (September 2013). "Why hackers make good citizens". Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  9. name="The Mentor 1986">Mentor, The (September 25, 1986). "Hacker's Manifesto". Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  10. name="Linux and Windows">"Linux vs Windows – Find Out The 9 Most Awesome Differences". Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  11. name="Ben Cotton 2016">Cotton, Ben (2016). "What is Copyleft?". Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  12. name="Lawrence Lessig 2007">Lessig, Lawrence (2007). "Laws that choke creativity" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved September 28, 2019.
  13. name="Henry Jenkins 2006">Jenkins, Henry (2006). Convergence Culture (PDF). New York: New York University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8147-4281-5.
  14. name="Ted Nelson 1974">Nelson, Ted (1974). "Computer Lib" (PDF): 304.
  15. name="David Sax 2017">Sax, David (November 18, 2017). "Our Love Affair with Digital is Over". Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  16. name="Julian Dibbel 1998">Dibbel, Julian (1998). "A Rape in Cyberspace": 11–30. Text "url:" ignored (help)
  17. name="John Perry Barlow 1996">Barlow, John (1996). "A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace". Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  18. name="Sherry Turtle 1994">Turkle, Sherry (1994). "Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality: Playing in the MUDs": 208–214. Text "url:" ignored (help)
@Amorton10: You should go back and read the directions in lessons 1–3 and listen to my audio feedback at the top of L3. —Grlucas (talk) 06:27, 17 September 2019 (EDT)