Difference between revisions of "User:MGray1196/NMAC 4460 Journal"

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One major thing that I have learned from the readings is that hackers are not the bad guys that we see on television and movies. They are not the ones that are trying to go into your bank account and steal all of your money. Hackers seek out the flaws in network systems in hopes to fix the issues so that the crackers won't take advantage of the flaws.{{sfn|Hackers vs Crackers: Easy to Understand Exclusive Difference|2017}}Learning this information about the hackers versus crackers fits more in my understanding of "being digital" because of the fact that people like hackers are a necessity in today's society. Now that the internet has become more available for many people to use, it calls for more security measures to protect people's privacy. [[w:David Weinberger|David Weinberger]] mentions in ''Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand'' that people have become more dependent on machines.{{sfn|Weinberger|2017}} Today, we rely a lot on machines to do the work for us. Even now as I am typing this, i am relying on my laptop to help make this journal post.
 
One major thing that I have learned from the readings is that hackers are not the bad guys that we see on television and movies. They are not the ones that are trying to go into your bank account and steal all of your money. Hackers seek out the flaws in network systems in hopes to fix the issues so that the crackers won't take advantage of the flaws.{{sfn|Hackers vs Crackers: Easy to Understand Exclusive Difference|2017}}Learning this information about the hackers versus crackers fits more in my understanding of "being digital" because of the fact that people like hackers are a necessity in today's society. Now that the internet has become more available for many people to use, it calls for more security measures to protect people's privacy. [[w:David Weinberger|David Weinberger]] mentions in ''Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand'' that people have become more dependent on machines.{{sfn|Weinberger|2017}} Today, we rely a lot on machines to do the work for us. Even now as I am typing this, i am relying on my laptop to help make this journal post.
  
== September 22, 2019: Linux ==
+
== September 22, 2019: The Battle of Linux==
[[w:Linux|Linux]] is an alternative operating system to the the Windows operating system created by [[w:Linus Torvalds|Linus Torvalds]] alongside a team of hackers.{{sfn|Moore|2017}}This OS is an Open Source Software which means that it is open to the public and they do not have to pay to use it.{{sfn|The Linux Kernel Archives: About |2014}} Having this system being free made me think that this system could not really be good. Why would anyone put something out for free. After watching the documentary ''Revolution OS'', I understood a little bit where the key players such as [[w:Richard Stallman|Richard Stallman]] and [[w:Eric S. Raymond|Eric S. Raymond]] were coming from and I respect their efforts. They felt that not being able to things such as codes between operating systems to be wrong and came up with their own solution to their problem. I also understand the side of [[w:Bill Gates|Bill Gates]] when he mentions how people shouldn't expect a group of people to work on an operating system to do it for free.{{sfn|An Open Letter to Hobbyists|1976}} The work that people have to put in to make these operating systems work well are tedious and they should be compensated for their work.  
+
[[w:Linux|Linux]] is an alternative operating system to the the Windows operating system created by [[w:Linus Torvalds|Linus Torvalds]] alongside a team of hackers.{{sfn|Moore|2017}}This OS is an Open Source Software which means that it is open to the public and they do not have to pay to use it.{{sfn|The Linux Kernel Archives: About |2014}} Having this system being free made me think that this system could not really be good. Why would anyone put something out for free. After watching the documentary ''Revolution OS'', I understood a little bit where the key players such as [[w:Richard Stallman|Richard Stallman]] and [[w:Eric S. Raymond|Eric S. Raymond]] were coming from and I respect their efforts. They felt that not being able to things such as codes between operating systems to be wrong and came up with their own solution to their problem. I also understand the side of [[w:Bill Gates|Bill Gates]] when he mentions how people shouldn't expect a group of people to work on an operating system to do it for free.{{sfn|Gates|1976}}The work that people have to put in to make these operating systems work well are tedious and they should be compensated for their work.  
  
 
With all this information, my idea of new media still remains the same. New media is more so the content rather than the new technologies themselves. There is more new pieces of content being created such as new social platforms rather than more new technologies. When it comes to these operating systems, they have influenced each other and have become more advanced now in 2019 than they were in the 1990s.
 
With all this information, my idea of new media still remains the same. New media is more so the content rather than the new technologies themselves. There is more new pieces of content being created such as new social platforms rather than more new technologies. When it comes to these operating systems, they have influenced each other and have become more advanced now in 2019 than they were in the 1990s.
  
== September 22, 2019: Open Source, Free, and Proprietary Software ==
+
== September 22, 2019: Free Software For Everyone and Heard of Copyright but Copyleft? ==
 +
When researching free source, I learned that it is more about the sharing of knowledge rather than making a profit from their services. With free software, people are given the freedom to "run, improve, modify, and distribute a computer program".{{sfn|Balle|2018|p=144}}Having this kind of software makes improving on computer programs a community effort which would seem like a good thing. They are the ones using the software and can give feedback as to what works best and what needs improvement. The people who are working with these software companies to improve on these systems are not really enough since they most likely have more knowledge of technology than the common person. Because of this, they can not account for issues that may come up for some people. Having the community makes it helpful in this regard. 
 +
 
 +
I have never heard of a copyleft but I guessed that I would be the opposite of a copyright. After doing more research, I found out that my guess was pretty much correct. Copyleft states that anyone who makes any improvements or changes on the software can not use the copyright to claim these changes that he or she makes.{{sfn|Patterson|2000|p=1377}}This also seems like free source where it is more about sharing information rather than trying to make money off of whatever you are doing on a software. People who are for the copyleft seem to be more about learning from others and use the ideas you learned and create without worrying about the copyright laws. It is all about a freedom and without the restrictions of copyright, people can be more creative.
 +
 
 +
Free source and Copyleft go along with the idea of new media because the two ideas show the implications of what happens as the content in the new technologies become more advanced. The more advanced our content gets, the more people have to create different ways for people to use the internet and the things that come with it. As we get new technologies, more work is done on the software so that I can keep up with the advancement of technology.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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====Bibliography====
 
====Bibliography====
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
 +
* {{cite journal |last= Balle |first=A. R. |title=The life cycle process of knowledge sharing in free software communities: Sharing profiles and motivations |url= |journal=Knowledge & Process Management |volume= |issue= |date=2018 |pages=143-152 |access-date= |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite magazine |last=Bush |first=Vannevar |date=July 1945 |title=As We May Think |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/ |magazine=The Atlantic |location= |publisher= |author-link=w:Vannevar Bush |access-date=2018-08-12|ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite magazine |last=Bush |first=Vannevar |date=July 1945 |title=As We May Think |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/ |magazine=The Atlantic |location= |publisher= |author-link=w:Vannevar Bush |access-date=2018-08-12|ref=harv }}
 +
*{{cite web |url=http://www.blinkenlights.com/classiccmp/gateswhine.html |title=An Open Letter to Hobbyists |last=Gates |first=Bill |date=February 3, 1976 |website=Blinken Lights |publisher= |access-date=2018-08-16 |quote=As the majority of hobbyists must be aware, most of you steal your software. | ref=harv}}
 
* {{cite web |url=https://grlucas.net/grl/New_Media |title=New Media |last=Lucas |first=Gerald |date=Dec 23, 2013 |website=Gerald R. Lucas |publisher= |access-date=2018-08-12 |quote=New media studies involve the digital technologies of human participation and communication, and the study of the social and cultural changes that these technologies precipitate.|ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite web |url=https://grlucas.net/grl/New_Media |title=New Media |last=Lucas |first=Gerald |date=Dec 23, 2013 |website=Gerald R. Lucas |publisher= |access-date=2018-08-12 |quote=New media studies involve the digital technologies of human participation and communication, and the study of the social and cultural changes that these technologies precipitate.|ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Manovich |first=Lev |chapter=New Media from Borges to HTML |editor1-last=Wardrip-Fruin |editor2-last=Montfort |title=NMR |chapter-url=http://manovich.net/content/04-projects/033-new-media-from-borges-to-html/30_article_2001.pdf |access-date=2018-08-11 |page=13–25 |author-link=w:Lev Manovich |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Manovich |first=Lev |chapter=New Media from Borges to HTML |editor1-last=Wardrip-Fruin |editor2-last=Montfort |title=NMR |chapter-url=http://manovich.net/content/04-projects/033-new-media-from-borges-to-html/30_article_2001.pdf |access-date=2018-08-11 |page=13–25 |author-link=w:Lev Manovich |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=McLuhan |first=Marshall |date=1964 |title=Understanding Media: the Extensions of Man |url=https://archive.org/details/understandingmed00mclurich |location=New York |publisher=Routledge |author-link=w:Marshall McLuhan |isbn=0415253977 }}
 
* {{cite book |last=McLuhan |first=Marshall |date=1964 |title=Understanding Media: the Extensions of Man |url=https://archive.org/details/understandingmed00mclurich |location=New York |publisher=Routledge |author-link=w:Marshall McLuhan |isbn=0415253977 }}
 +
* {{cite web |people=Moore, J.T.S. (Director) |date=2001 |title=Revolution OS |trans-title= |medium=video |language=English |url=https://youtu.be/4vW62KqKJ5A |access-date=2019-07-20 |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Murray |first=Janet H. |chapter=Inventing the Medium |editor1-last=Wardrip-Fruin |editor2-last=Montfort |title=NMR |page=3–11 |author-link=w:Janet H. Murray |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Murray |first=Janet H. |chapter=Inventing the Medium |editor1-last=Wardrip-Fruin |editor2-last=Montfort |title=NMR |page=3–11 |author-link=w:Janet H. Murray |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Negroponte |first=Nicholas |date=1996 |title=Being Digital |url=https://archive.org/details/beingdigital00negr |location=New York |publisher=Vintage |page=14 |isbn=0679762906 |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite book |last=Negroponte |first=Nicholas |date=1996 |title=Being Digital |url=https://archive.org/details/beingdigital00negr |location=New York |publisher=Vintage |page=14 |isbn=0679762906 |ref=harv }}
 +
* {{cite journal |last= Patterson |first=Chip |title=Copyright Misuse and Modified Copyleft: New Solutions to the Challenges of Internet Standardization |url= |journal=Michigan Law Review |volume=98 |issue= |date=2000 |pages=1351-1383 |access-date= |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite magazine |last=Weinberger |first=David |date=April 18, 2017 |title=Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand |url=https://www.wired.com/story/our-machines-now-have-knowledge-well-never-understand |magazine=Wired |location=Backchannel |publisher= |access-date=2018-08-13 |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite magazine |last=Weinberger |first=David |date=April 18, 2017 |title=Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand |url=https://www.wired.com/story/our-machines-now-have-knowledge-well-never-understand |magazine=Wired |location=Backchannel |publisher= |access-date=2018-08-13 |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite web |url=https://www.educba.com/hackers-vs-crackers/ |title=Hackers vs Crackers: Easy to Understand Exclusive Difference |author=<!--None listed--> |date=2017 |website=EDUCBA |publisher= |access-date=2019-07-17 |quote= |ref=harv }}
 
* {{cite web |url=https://www.educba.com/hackers-vs-crackers/ |title=Hackers vs Crackers: Easy to Understand Exclusive Difference |author=<!--None listed--> |date=2017 |website=EDUCBA |publisher= |access-date=2019-07-17 |quote= |ref=harv }}
 +
* {{cite web |url=https://www.kernel.org/category/about.html |title=The Linux Kernel Archives: About |website=kernel.org |date=September 2, 2014 |accessdate=September 4, 2015}}
 
{{Refend}}
 
{{Refend}}

Revision as of 02:01, 23 September 2019

August 14, 2019: New Media

I consider to be New Media is exactly what the name states. New Media is the new forms in which media is created. Rather than having information given to us on papers such as a newspapers or magazines, New Media is created with the help of the internet. The internet has made a lot of information easily available to people by putting information on websites such as CNN or FOX News. Even magazines can be made digital these days. New Media has given people a different form of media that people can consume on a day to day basis

August 25, 2019: New Media

One aspect about New Media that I learned from reading the texts is the idea of new technologies being assimilated into everyday life in the U.S. Since there are so many new technologies that are being created in the U.S. most people do not think twice about these technologies and they are assumed to be a part of everyday life any because there are so many things coming out[1]If there was a country where there are not many new technologies being created, the reaction to these new technologies would be different. Those countries that have a slow production of new technologies have more time to think about these new technologies. Another aspect from the readings that I learned was that no matter what time people live, New Media will always be seen as distrusted media. The more advanced technology becomes, the more people start to worry about using them. People see technology as becoming too smart and the abilities that they learn could be abused by some people.[2]The last aspect I learned from reading the texts is that New Media has made people more than consumers and has “decentralized media control and production.”[3]>People these days can create their own projects because people now have access to the digital technologies and can use them to create their own creative projects.

I totally agree Michaela! New media is so integrated into everyday life that it is often difficult to think about being 'new' to us.Kyannayeager (talk) 14:29, 29 August 2019 (EDT)
@MGray1196: You bring up a very good point that people don't really trust media but I think you can make that point stronger by giving an example of what type of new media people don't trust. Like do they not trust smartphones because they think they are being recorded? In comparison to a flip phone because it doesn't have that type of technical ability? Yes, people are making their or products using digital technology a few examples of that would add to your point. Amayesing77 (talk) --Amayesing77 (talk) 15:35, 8 September 2019 (EDT)

September 8, 2019: Foundational Thinkers

The idea of the Memex which was created by Vannevar Bush is a mechanism that could store information on a large disk that is made of electromechanical controls, microfilm cameras and readers. He also mentioned that there would be a way to link information on this mechanism. He talks about in his 1945 article "As We My Think", that this is idea will happen in the near future because of the technology advances during his time. Devices that he mentions are things such as the typewriter.[4] His idea of the memex reminds me of how we use our technologies today such the laptop computer. These devices can store many digital items such as PDFs and electronic books.

September 8, 2019: Marshall McLuhan

In Marshall McLuhan's "The Medium Is the Message", his main point that he makes is that information being received or sent is not important. The important thing is the way in which a message is being received or sent. The way in which information is sent or received is what shapes human actions.[5]A message containing the same information could be sent through two different mediums and are taken in different ways. For example, if you were to send a message to someone through a text message versus talking on the phone will make someone react to the information differently.

September 15, 2019: Being Digital

In Nicholas Negroponte's Being Digital, he points out the differences between atoms and bits. Atoms have weight to them and they make up physical items that you can touch such as news papers, magazines and books. A bit is small , weightless, colorless, and they are priceless. You can not buy a bit like you can an atom. Bits can travel a lot easier and faster than atoms because of the bits' characteristics. When Negroponte talks about these bits as bits, he is saying that they stand alone as it's "own state of being" and are represented as a 1 or 0.[6] Negroponte also mentions some of the implications of the shift from atoms to bits. One example that displays this shift is entertainment. No more is a playlist of music stuck to a physical item like CD's or cassette tapes. Movies are also not only available in a physical form. These forms of entertainment can be purchased as bits instead of atoms. This is what lead places such as Blockbuster to go out of business.[7]

September 15, 2019:Being Digital: The Hacker

One major thing that I have learned from the readings is that hackers are not the bad guys that we see on television and movies. They are not the ones that are trying to go into your bank account and steal all of your money. Hackers seek out the flaws in network systems in hopes to fix the issues so that the crackers won't take advantage of the flaws.[8]Learning this information about the hackers versus crackers fits more in my understanding of "being digital" because of the fact that people like hackers are a necessity in today's society. Now that the internet has become more available for many people to use, it calls for more security measures to protect people's privacy. David Weinberger mentions in Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand that people have become more dependent on machines.[9] Today, we rely a lot on machines to do the work for us. Even now as I am typing this, i am relying on my laptop to help make this journal post.

September 22, 2019: The Battle of Linux

Linux is an alternative operating system to the the Windows operating system created by Linus Torvalds alongside a team of hackers.[10]This OS is an Open Source Software which means that it is open to the public and they do not have to pay to use it.[11] Having this system being free made me think that this system could not really be good. Why would anyone put something out for free. After watching the documentary Revolution OS, I understood a little bit where the key players such as Richard Stallman and Eric S. Raymond were coming from and I respect their efforts. They felt that not being able to things such as codes between operating systems to be wrong and came up with their own solution to their problem. I also understand the side of Bill Gates when he mentions how people shouldn't expect a group of people to work on an operating system to do it for free.[12]The work that people have to put in to make these operating systems work well are tedious and they should be compensated for their work.

With all this information, my idea of new media still remains the same. New media is more so the content rather than the new technologies themselves. There is more new pieces of content being created such as new social platforms rather than more new technologies. When it comes to these operating systems, they have influenced each other and have become more advanced now in 2019 than they were in the 1990s.

September 22, 2019: Free Software For Everyone and Heard of Copyright but Copyleft?

When researching free source, I learned that it is more about the sharing of knowledge rather than making a profit from their services. With free software, people are given the freedom to "run, improve, modify, and distribute a computer program".[13]Having this kind of software makes improving on computer programs a community effort which would seem like a good thing. They are the ones using the software and can give feedback as to what works best and what needs improvement. The people who are working with these software companies to improve on these systems are not really enough since they most likely have more knowledge of technology than the common person. Because of this, they can not account for issues that may come up for some people. Having the community makes it helpful in this regard.

I have never heard of a copyleft but I guessed that I would be the opposite of a copyright. After doing more research, I found out that my guess was pretty much correct. Copyleft states that anyone who makes any improvements or changes on the software can not use the copyright to claim these changes that he or she makes.[14]This also seems like free source where it is more about sharing information rather than trying to make money off of whatever you are doing on a software. People who are for the copyleft seem to be more about learning from others and use the ideas you learned and create without worrying about the copyright laws. It is all about a freedom and without the restrictions of copyright, people can be more creative.

Free source and Copyleft go along with the idea of new media because the two ideas show the implications of what happens as the content in the new technologies become more advanced. The more advanced our content gets, the more people have to create different ways for people to use the internet and the things that come with it. As we get new technologies, more work is done on the software so that I can keep up with the advancement of technology.

References

Citations

Bibliography

  • Balle, A. R. (2018). "The life cycle process of knowledge sharing in free software communities: Sharing profiles and motivations". Knowledge & Process Management: 143–152.
  • Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). "As We May Think". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  • Gates, Bill (February 3, 1976). "An Open Letter to Hobbyists". Blinken Lights. Retrieved 2018-08-16. As the majority of hobbyists must be aware, most of you steal your software.
  • Lucas, Gerald (Dec 23, 2013). "New Media". Gerald R. Lucas. Retrieved 2018-08-12. New media studies involve the digital technologies of human participation and communication, and the study of the social and cultural changes that these technologies precipitate.
  • Manovich, Lev. "New Media from Borges to HTML" (PDF). In Wardrip-Fruin; Montfort (eds.). NMR. p. 13–25. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  • McLuhan, Marshall (1964). Understanding Media: the Extensions of Man. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415253977.
  • Moore, J.T.S. (Director) (2001). "Revolution OS" (video). Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  • Murray, Janet H. "Inventing the Medium". In Wardrip-Fruin; Montfort (eds.). NMR. p. 3–11.
  • Negroponte, Nicholas (1996). Being Digital. New York: Vintage. p. 14. ISBN 0679762906.
  • Patterson, Chip (2000). "Copyright Misuse and Modified Copyleft: New Solutions to the Challenges of Internet Standardization". Michigan Law Review. 98: 1351–1383.
  • Weinberger, David (April 18, 2017). "Our Machines Now Have Knowledge We'll Never Understand". Wired. Backchannel. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  • "Hackers vs Crackers: Easy to Understand Exclusive Difference". EDUCBA. 2017. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  • "The Linux Kernel Archives: About". kernel.org. September 2, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2015.