User:Kyannayeager/NMAC 4460 Journal

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August 14, 2019: New Media

Personally, I would define new media to be the 'newer' channels of communication, for example, the internet. Although the internet is not inherently new, it is newly used for the distribution and production of not only communication but media. Means of entertainment and communication are becoming more accessible through the internet. Unlike before, people mainly relied on newspapers and later television, to get their entertainment. For quicker communication with one another, they relied on telephone. In the more recent years the internet has been home to not only youtube, and television channels, but online communities. When media can sustain its own channels, and facilitate new means of communication and community, I believe it becomes 'new media'. People can use their respective devices to tap into the same wide database of information and entertainment, and that's what differentiates the 'new' from the old.

August 20, 2019: New Media Research

Upon further research, new media refers to either the study of the changing landscape of the devices used to communicate and access the converging media[1] , the devices themselves that allow for networking, or media's digital representation[2]. To merge it with my own idea, it appears as though new media refers to the convergence aspect of media rather than relying solely on the mode. New media is the straying away from the traditional modes of media that are stationary and the arrival into those that are multifunctional. Wether studying this change or studying the devices themselves, what each outlook offers is ultimately convergence of traditional forms of media through whatever mode chosen.

@Kyannayeager: I think the term new media can be sort of confusing sometimes since we think of it as something completely different from "old media". However, as you said, new media is really just changing the static nature of traditional media and allowing more collaboration through digital means. We still use traditional media like newspapers, but more often in new settings (online). I enjoyed seeing your interpretation of new media. It is such a broad term that is interesting to look at different views. Sabub (talk)
@Kyannayeager: Once reading into it more you get a better understanding of why the changes through out media and its objects is considered new media instead of what we use them for. I initially only considered new media as the different social cites or changes the make to them as a form of new media which was why I was confused. The way they merged a phone and camera together to form a new media source was a great idea though the new generation has lost with communication skills. Soon all new forms of media will be multitasking where all old single medias will be just a memory to keep. KhajadaNeal (talk) 12:14, 2 September 2019 (EDT)

September 4, 2019: Transitional Thinkers

After exploring most of the early ideas, they were mostly pointed in the direction of the computer. When you comprise the ideas, they are all contributions to components in its basic structure. Walter Benjamin, although against mechanical work in regards to art, forecasted today's usage of computers from tradition pen and paper. [3]. Bush proposed a device similar to today's computer or even PDA, and minus the introduction of the internet, called the Memex that would hold books and personal records and information. In his essay he references Leibnitzs' invention which essentially was a prototype to the keyboard [4] and he references Charles Babage's invention, which was basically a computer that unfortunately couldn't be completed due to the high costs. When he discusses human language to mechanization, he brings up the typeless recorders to record vocals and utilizing the machines transformative properties to give it the ability to allow us to mechanize human language. That theory is to me, pointing directly toward the mechanisms used for people who can't speak or move. By looking directly at a keyboard with eye tracking, not a single word is spoken from a human but it is reproduced from a computer.

September 4, 2019: Marshall McLuhan

McLuhan had many theory's that upon first look seem confusing. With the medium is the message originally being spelled 'massage', it proved the point of his message. The message isn't intrinsically tied to the words or physical object, but in the medium. Even in the Ted Talk by David Byrne, the architecture (the medium) is what shapes the sound of music (the message). I think what he is trying to say is that the words themselves do not matter, but it's the way it is said that creates a meaning. Even though message was spelled incorrectly, the true meaning and message was still there.

September 14, 2019: Negroponte

The message in Nicholas Negroponte's Being Digital is that eventually we will move toward an entirely digital society. The change is shown in the difference between atoms and bits. The atom is the physical referent and the the bit is the digital, but now the bit is becoming the atom. Decentralizing, globalizing, harmonizing, and empowering are the four qualities of the digital age. When Negroponte says 'bits are bits' he's talking about the fact that bits can be used not only to create more bits, but also new modes of media. Adding bits creates a better picture, clearer sound, and instructions for devices, combining different types of bits gives us multimedia.

When discussing repurposing of multimedia he mainly names the reusing of different forms of media like the use of audio and video in any combination to different channels. For example, re-used performances on radio, film's re-releasing of plays, and televised movies are all examples given[5].

His view on the current state of education is that if everyone can be allowed an education it makes for less poverty. The digital would make it possible to teach kids how to learn from the ground up. Therefor making technology not only a product for productivity but also make it a tool for learning and furthering human advancement [6]</ref>

Since 1995 Negroponte has been working on the One Laptop per Child campaign and was on the board of directors for Motorola.[7]

Some of the predictions he makes in 1995 are that we will be buying books and magazines from the internet, We will have more than one browser, copyright laws will become weak, and people will stop gathering around the t.v to view their personalized multimedia mediums. I've only chosen he ones that are true. Many of these things have come true and are becoming more severe[8].

September 15, 2019: The Hacker

I think that while listening to "Why Good Hackers Make Good Citizens"[9], hackers don't have to purely be digital. They also don't necessarily have to have a negative connotation. Crackers on the other hand are what we all think about when we hear the first term. Relating to "being digital", I don't think we can have the one without the other. If there are no people exploring the boundaries and pushing them forward, how would technology advance? The crime hackers commit is indeed curiosity, as stated in the Hackers Manifesto [10].

My understanding of being digital is the constant reimagining and renovating of our current mediums of technology and it's products. Even in Negroponte's Being Digital, he points out that we're losing almost all physical signifiers as they were before and placing them into bits [5]. Although he was speaking in a technological sense in regard to CD's and Book, that is the case with technological advancement in any field. In health, if there were no hackers, new ways of treating patients would not exist. We need hackers to combine and continue to push the boundaries on what is possible.

September 19,2019: Open Source and Proprietary software niether is better than the other

In watching the film Revolution OS I understood the perspective of both Richard Stallman, and Bruce Perens. Proprietary or in my understanding, commercial software is extremely tricky and intrusive. It allows for companies, and in the films case, Microsoft to take advantage of their consumers and control the cost. Open Source however, is not necessarily free, but it is free to use edit and distribute. It's also not as beneficial to the hackers as they may not be able to make a living, but alternatively it is better for the community. Even though many people can not make a living, furthering the software is is done for the greater good, and it's main goal, unlike proprietary software, isn't to be the best or the most useful, but is to promote solidarity within the community [11]. As stated in the documentary by Frank Hecker, due to free alternatives, the larger companies were obligated to lower their prices on their source code. [11].

Depending on the users need it can be argued that one is not inherently better than the other. The main difference remains in the target market [12]. This is similar to new media in that the fundamental building blocks are necessary to create something 'new'. It also serves as a reminder that more than one source or channel is needed in order to create newer forms of media. New media is not necessarily better than old media, the target audience has changed and consequently so do the forms of media.

September 19, 2019: Open Source is not unified

When researching Open Source one of the things that stuck out was the fact that, although people can be pro-open source, it isn't synonymous with them being anti-proprietary. There are many people who think open source is good for learning, or as a teaching aid, but feel as though proprietary software is just as much of a necessity. In fact, many open source softwares are deployed by revenue services. [13] It is in this relationship that the split can really be examined. Some of the main appeal from contributing to open source software is that it promotes community building. Aside from that, intellectual stimulation, and monetary gain are also noted.[13] Eventually however, the focus shifted to what was truly 'free'.

The article itself focuses on that point. Open source didn't originally carry the meaning of free as in monetary value, but free to manipulate. Now this type software is being used by bigger companies to drive profit. Basically, it is being used as a tool to prove credibility.[14] There has always been split meaning in the free connotation. Recently that has become even more true.

@Kyannayeager: Footnotes go after your punctuation, please. Short footnotes with multiple authors would be done like: {{sfn|Shin|Terrance|Tunca|2013}}. Please see my feedback that I will be updating through the day on 9/24/19. —Grlucas (talk) 06:47, 26 September 2019 (EDT)

September 29, 2019: Lessig and the Legalities of Culture

After reading about remix culture it seems to be the creative transformation of professional culture. Defining culture in this sense is hard because even in Lawrence Lessig’s Ted talk, “Laws that choke creativity”, he defines culture as an idea that much like CDROM’s it is ‘read-write’ [15]. I could say culture is the manifestation of customs and by products of a particular group of people, but as we arrive on the digital landscape, it becomes harder to define. It’s part of the reason why strict copyright laws are in part, ridiculous. As mentioned in Remix, everything we’ve seen and heard has been done before, and although it doesn’t make the byproduct unoriginal, it makes it an issue of legalities above cultural product.

Professional culture is done for profit, whereas amateur culture is done in passion [15]. Much like participatory culture, Remix culture is about the interactions with the products that are produced for profit and transforming, or remixing them, into something completely new. Once it’s released, culture is owned in essence by the group who normalized it, but perhaps by whoever gains control of it legally. When he was talking about protecting Read-Only culture, without sparing read-write culture, he’s talking about the balance of regulating what should be free use in ‘amateur culture’ and what is commercialized.

September 29,2019: Participatory Culture and Fair Use

Participatory culture is something we learned in a different class as well. But furthering my knowledge on it, I still find myself asking what exactly culture is. For digital media participatory culture and remix culture really backs up the importance of fair use and ownership in the digital domain. When there is so much participation from society the question is who owns the final product. This whole lesson has me linking culture and digital media with ownership. There isn’t protection from companies using data mining to collect our data and predict our trends, which they need, but there is when the trends are being made. It’s all about control[16].

@Kyannayeager: That's a great point, Kyanna. Defining culture, especially in the context of what you're talking about, is important in understanding what we are talking about in these articles and videos. I think it only really matter who owns something from a participative standpoint when money gets involved. If the goal is to create something useful for everyone, everyone owns it and everyone wins. But if, through participation, a great thing happens and someone wants to claim it for themselves for a profit, that's the issue. Hthrxlynn (talk) 21:31, 29 September 2019 (EDT)



I'm unable to add my additional references at the moment, for now I can only insert the shortened footnotes. If I can get rid of the forbidden error tonight (September 29), I will add them, until then I will work to figure out the issue.



  • Benjamin, Walter (1936). "The Work of Art in the Age Mechanical Reproduction". Retrieved 04-09-2019. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  • Bracy, Catherine. "Why good hackers make good citizens". Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  • Bush, Vannevar (1945). "As We May Think". Retrieved 4 September, 2019. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  • School of Communications, Elon University. "More from Nicholas Negroponte". Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  • Lucas, Gerald R. (December 23, 2013). "New Media - Gerald R. Lucas". Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  • Manovich, Lev. "New Media from Borges to HTML" (PDF). In Wardrip-Fruin; Montfort (eds.). NMR. p. 13–25. Retrieved 11 August, 2019. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  • Media Lab People, MIT. "Nicholas Negroponte Chairman's Office". Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  • The, Mentor (1986). "Hackers Manifesto". Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  • Moore, J.T.S. (Director) (2001). "Revolution OS HD". Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  • Negroponte, Nicholas (1995). Being digital (1st Vintage Books ed.). Vintage Books. ISBN 0679762906.
  • Negroponte, Nicholas. "Laptops Work". Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  • Sacks, Micheal (December 2013). "Competition Between Open Source and Proprietary Software: Strategies for Survival". Management Information System. 32 (3): 268–295. Retrieved 09-19-2019. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  • Terrance, August; Shin, Hyoduk; Tunca, Tunay (December 2013). "Licensing and Competition for Services in Open Source Software". Retrieved September 22, 2019.